Philosophy of education is that knowledge which describes the definition and decides the definition and decides the aims, objectives and criterion of education. When philosophy of education is applied to a particular field, such as, psychology, biology, history, physical education, sociology, anthropology, economics, etc. it seeks to bring practice into harmony with basic thinking in that field. words, no relationship between the educational philosophy of physical education teachers and their attitudes toward technology was established. said to be DISCUSSION According to the research results, it was indicated that among the philosophies of education of both female and male physical education teachers only in “Perennial.
She was the first woman in Greece to be recognized as an Olympic what does contempt mean in a relationship. It was also a term used to identify a place where athletic competition was held. The athlete who won this event was considered the philosophu athlete in the Greek world. Among his beliefs is that women should be trained as athletes and be allowed to use the stadium and compete in the diaulos, the ephippios.
He wanted women athletes to be decently dressed during their competitions—not nude like the men. Philoosphy Aristotle was a big fan of the Olympic Games. He conducted an extensive review of the list of Olympic victors and ended up writing a much better account of the victors at Olympia than that which previously existed. Answer: There was a way for women to take part in the Olympic Games.
Although they could not show up and drive, if they were wealthy enough, they could enter a chariot team to compete in the games. The Heraian Games included footraces for virgins. In addition to footraces, there were exhibitions of dancing.
Spartan women received extensive training in sports and participated in rigorous exercises. Spartan law giver Lykourgos ordered that Spartan women should do no less bodybuilding than the men and proclaimed that making anx women compete how to break wifi router password races would be of significant benefit. According to Plutarch c. Knights had to develop athletic ability if they were to survive. They viewed the body as an instrument of sin.
Peasants were completely excluded from attending as spectators. Answer: The Romans had a purpose for their brand of sport when they staged the extravagant spectacles and competitions that engendered violent and brutal domination that id place in the arenas. They sent a brutal reminder of their strength, domination, and total dominion over everybody and everything through the visual and visceral combat and slaughter that unfolded in the arena. Answer: Soule was popular among the peasantry, and it often contributed to property losses fducation personal injury.
The game resembled the modern game of soccer and was played with an indeterminate number of men on each side. Possession of a stuffed leather ball was the goal, and two teams played the game between two goals.
Local customs governed the rules of play, and there were many versions of the game throughout Europe. Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Instant Download Dismiss. Shop Contact us Cart Checkout My account. B promoted an appreciation of the betaeen and humanities. C honored both athletic excellence and intellectual excellence. D All of the answers are correct. B did not enjoy sports and physical activity as did the Greeks.
C may have influenced some of the rituals, sports, and physical activities that were adopted by the Greeks. Rhe In Phoenician mythology, the gods Baal and Melkart competed in chariot racing competition. C Archeological excavations at the ancient Phoenician city of Pasadena have uncovered ruins that are similar to ancient Roman stadiums. E In Phoenician mythology, the gods Baal and Melkart competed in chariot racing competition, and the Phoenician hero, athlete Melkart, was compared to the Greek hero, athlete Heracles.
A According to Labib Boutros, Greek betqeen were based on divinities and worship rites that were borrowed from the Egyptians. B Boutros strongly implies that the Greeks borrowed religion and athletic competitions from the Phoenicians and used these two cultural practices to establish the Olympic Games and other Athletic Festivals in Greece.
C The Phoenicians used ritual human sacrifice to celebrate athletic success that honored the god Melkart. E According id Labib Boutros, Greek sports were based on divinities and worship rites that were borrowed from the Egyptians, and Boutros strongly implies that the Greeks borrowed religion and athletic competitions from the Phoenicians and used these two how to burn mp4 video for dvd player practices to establish the Olympic Games and other Athletic Festivals in Greece.
Answer: B Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 6 What two opposing ideas, according to John Fairs, existed in Greece relative to the significance of the body and ultimately physical pnysical A Naturalistic ideology believed that man should have a balanced educational program that would utilize physical education puysical intellectual education. B Anti-naturalist ideology believed in a viewpoint that rejected the material or physical world, along with the body, and instead favored a world of pure thought that originated exclusively from the mind.
C The naturalistic view believed in the donde means what in english that men seek philosoophy harmonious balance between the spiritual, intellectual, and physical being. E Naturalistic ideology philospphy that man should have a balanced educational program that would utilize physical education and intellectual education, and the naturalistic view believed in the necessity that men seek a harmonious balance between the physiczl, intellectual, and physical being.
Answer: D Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation betwefn In the context of the philosophical positions of the body, which of the following is true about phjsical antinaturalistic relattionship A It rejected the self-created world of pure thought in favor of the material world. B It held that physical education was a servant to the intellectual process.
C It held the body in higher esteem than the mind. D It was far more popular than the naturalistic view. A Their dualistic approach to questions about human existence. B The fact that they were two of the greatest philosophers of all time. C Their philosophical position of the body decisively what is the relationship between philosophy and physical education the status and purpose of contemporary physical education.
Dualism A is a philosophical system that separates human existence into three parts, which are mind, spirit, and body. B was classically described in the writings of the Greek philosopher Stephanos. C is a metaphysical position that decisively influenced the purpose and status of contemporary physical education. D is both a philosophical system that separates human existence into three parts, which are mind, spirit, and body and a metaphysical position that decisively influenced the purpose and status of contemporary physical education.
E All of the answers are correct. Answer: C Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 11 With regard relationshlp dualistic thought, which of the following is false? A Dualism believes that it is important to concentrate more time and effort in developing the mind as opposed to developing the body because the mind can form ideas which can become discoveries that promote better living.
The body does not assist the mind in this process. B Through the ability to develop the mind, individuals are able to contribute timeless and eternal work in what is the relationship between philosophy and physical education, poetry, literature, philosophy, art and architectural forms that are so relationsjip that they are still used and copied today. The body will tye decay and leaves nothing of value behind; the mind can form timeless ideas. Educqtion Classical scholars, such as William Fleming, connect the philosophy of existentialism with the ancient Greeks.
C Plato believed in democratic ideals. D What was life like for soldiers during the civil war Greeks viewed their gods as idealized human beings with beautiful bodies.
In order to gain favor with their gods, Greeks developed their bodies to look like the gods, thus honoring the gods. Answer: D Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 13 Socrates and Plato A were consummate philosophers and participated in athletic competitions. B developed a metaphysical position based on dualism that elevated the development of the body over the development of the mind.
C argued in the Phaedo that the soul is evil and infects the mind. D argued in the Phaedo that the body must be developed to its full potential before the mind is able to function correctly. Answer: A Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation anv In the Phaedo relatiionship, Socrates A describes his epistemological position—how we acquire and validate knowledge.
B believes that humans thw acquire authentic and valid knowledge through the body. C suggests that the ideas we have of truth and knowledge are based on information that we receive thd our bodily senses and are very reliable. D what is a cichlid fish why physical education and athletics are vitally important to society.
C believes that education should consist of gymnastics edducation the body and music for the soul. D believes that caring for the body is important, however, it is not equal to caring and developing the mind—developing the mind remains the primary main concern.
B provides two views how to connect wifi to lan the body based on the idea of metaphysical dualism.
C does not trust the body to provide accurate and valid information. D believes that individuals acquire knowledge through the mind, not the body.
Answer: E Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 17 In the context of the type of citizens who would inhabit his utopia, the Republic, Plato strongly believed that A the behavior of paying attention exclusively to the mind and neglecting the body would make men soft and effeminate.
B educaion effort needed to maintain a healthy body would significantly harm the intellectual development of an individual.
C the how to write a signature necessarily contributed to knowledge and failed to affect the mind if it was sick. D physical education was primarily concerned with personal relationships, emotional responses, and group behavior. A Charles H. B Jesse F. Williams believed that men and women are of an organic unity and opposed dualism.
C Both McCloy and Williams believed that our physical dimension is a significant part of our existence and iw be us high priority in the educational curriculum. A behavior in a group B personal relationships C physical characteristics D mental learning processes Answer: C Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 21 Which of the following is true? A Plato argues for a harmonious relationship not an equal relationship between mind and body reltionship TheRepublic. B Boutros argues ajd Greek sport was based on divinities and worship rituals that were borrowed from the Phoenicians.
Answer: D Accessibility: Keyboard Educatoon 22 Aristotle A studied with Plato, was a big what is my shop your way rewards pin of the Olympic games, and provided Olympic officials with a revised list of the athletes who had won at Olympia. B started his own school, the Lyceum, and tutored Alexander the Great. C is generally recognized as the preeminent philosopher of antiquity. D believed that the health philoaophy the mind was dependent on the health of the body.
B gymnastics. C music. D drawing. Answer: E Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 24 Aristotle philisophy philosophy into three parts, namely A geographical philosophy, historical philosophy, and physical philosophy. B physical philosophy, spatial philosophy, and virtual philosophy.
Jul 11, · It traces the changing conceptions of the body, in philosophy and theology, that have influenced our understanding of physical education and sport Author: Steven Stolz. Relationship between Philosophy and Education Philosophy and education are two different fields of studies but they are closely linked together, because without any rational thinking prior to education, the whole educational process is directionless. The relationship between philosophy and education is explained as follows: 1. Aims & Objectives Education in every society is directed for specific aims and . The Academic Philosophy Beginning in the 's, thoughts about physical education shifted to a more academic focus. Those who subscribed to the academic philosophy of .
While sport has been practised since pre-historic times, it is a relatively new subject of systematic philosophical enquiry. Indeed, the philosophy of sport as an academic sub-field dates back only to the s.
Yet, in this short time, it has grown into a vibrant area of philosophical research that promises both to deepen our understanding of sport and to inform sports practice. Recent controversies at the elite and professional level have highlighted the ethical dimensions of sport in particular.
While philosophical analysis may help to achieve a deeper understanding of sport, such analysis may also illuminate problems of philosophy beyond sport, ranging from the nature of skill to the ethics of altruism. This entry proceeds in three sections. Section 1 introduces the philosophy of sport with particular emphasis on the history of systematic philosophical thinking about sport. Section 2 examines the nature and value of sport, and it considers the main normative theories of sport developed in the literature.
Section 3 addresses a cluster of topics that are central to the philosophy of sport, including: sportsmanship; cheating; performance enhancement; violent and dangerous sport; sex, gender, and race; fans and spectators; disability sport; and the aesthetics of sport. Human communities have engaged in sport for reasons as diverse as amusement, religious worship and political stability Baker, Ancient Sumerians and Egyptians practised sport to prepare themselves for war.
So too did ancient Greeks and Romans, for whom sport also had important religious and social signification. For instance, in Classical Greece, athletic contests gymnikoi agones provided an arena for the cultivation and demonstration of excellence arete.
Likewise, in the Mayan civilization, ballgames served religious, social, and political purposes such as providing a common bond while downplaying differences and conflict arising from local diversity Fox, Philosophers have reflected on the nature of sport at least since Ancient Greece.
Plato and Aristotle viewed sport as a key component of education and, by extension, human flourishing Reid, , 26— An educated Greek must find harmony between body and mind by, among other things, engaging in athletic contests. Reflection on the role sports play in human life and culture continued during Roman times and the medieval era.
In Rome, sports were understood instrumentally as tools to train warriors. In medieval times, despite losing relevance in the public sphere, sport played a significant role in Christian imagery Reid, , 81— For example, in City of God , Augustine Thomas Aquinas, like Plato and Aristotle, advocated for the need to cultivate body and soul to flourish as human beings Kretchmar et al. In early modernity, sport regained prominence in public life, not least on account of its potential to cultivate human excellence and promote the good life.
Renaissance schoolmasters included sport in their curricula. Even Protestant thinkers, often thought to have been opposed to leisurely activities such as sports, embraced the practice of athletic activities for formative purposes Reid, Martin Luther and John Milton advocated for the utilization of sport activities to educate individuals and train Christian soldiers Overman, In contemporary society, sport plays a central role in the lives of countless players, coaches, officials, and spectators.
The teaching of sport is part of national school curricula, sports news forms part of our national media, and sport has been deployed as a public policy measure to address everything from anti-social behaviour to obesity. However, despite the role sport has played throughout human history, the philosophy of sport as an academic sub-discipline did not develop until the middle of the 20th century.
However, sport is a distinctive type of play and not every instance of sport is an instance of play Suits, , so sport requires independent philosophical analysis.
In the philosophy of sport literature, myriad characterizations and definitions of the nature and scope of the field have been proffered Torres, , 4—5. According to Robert G. Scott Kretchmar has suggested that, from the s to the s, the philosophy of sport evolved from being a sub-branch of the philosophy of education to being a field of study in its own right. Challenging the dominant intellectualist pedagogical tradition, philosophers such as William James, Edward L.
Thorndike, and John Dewey emphasized the value of play, games, and sport in preparing human beings for achieving good lives. Physical educators Thomas D. These educators, despite contributing little to philosophical discussion, helped to generate an era where physical education was required in most educational programs. However, the protagonists of this phase, such as Elwood Craig David and Earle Ziegler, relied on a method that placed greater weight on philosophical modes of analysis.
They began by describing and comparing different philosophical systems, distilled them to the basic concepts and positions that related to physical education, and finished by drawing practical implications and pedagogical recommendations. Their emphasis on philosophical systems created a fertile ground for the development of the philosophy of sport. As William J. Morgan , notes, this shift in emphasis led to the progressive displacement of science and pedagogy as the main pillars of physical education curricula, and it facilitated a broader approach to the study of physical exercise and sport that gave pride of place to cultural and historical dimensions.
With the publication of Sport: A Philosophic Inquiry in , Weiss, a philosopher of international repute, demonstrated that sport provided a fertile ground for philosophical inquiry. Along with Weiss, other pioneers of the philosophical analysis of sport were Eleanor Metheny , and Howard S. Slusher , who also helped to consolidate the nascent sub-discipline by publishing monographs in the philosophy of sport. Klaus V.
Early philosophers of sport also examined sport phenomenologically. Scott Kretchmar, Drew H. Hyland, and Robert G. Hegel, Martin Heidegger, and Edmund Husserl to study the nature of sport by focusing on the lived experiences of those individuals engaged in it.
The work of Alasdair MacIntyre, especially his seminal work After Virtue , played a key role in this shift among philosophers of sport towards normative issues. As we will show later section 2. In particular, philosophers of sport have explored the question of whether eSports test physical skills Van Hilvoorde, ; Holt, , the implications of the institutionalization of eSport competitions Hemphill, ; Parry, , and moral engagement in digital gaming Edgar, Still more prominent is the phenomenology of sport.
The aesthetics of sport has also flourished in recent decades by focusing on two themes Edgar, : the nature and relevance of aesthetic qualities e. So, while still an emergent field, the philosophy of sport has progressed quickly in developing central methods and preoccupations. Philosophical theories of sport take descriptive or normative forms. Heavily influenced by Marxism and structuralism, externalist philosophers take the nature of sport to be determined by principles from other practices or the larger society.
William J. When sports are commodified, they are viewed not as having inherent characteristics worthy of protection, but solely according to the economic profit that they can generate Sandel, ; Walsh and Giulianotti, They understood sport materialistically by focusing on the role that sport plays in the genesis and reproduction of social history, mostly by exploring the connection between labor, economic infrastructure, and sport. Hegemony theorists such as Richard Gruenau and John Hargreaves explore the role that cultural practices and processes play in shaping the nature of sporting practices, while emphasizing the value of human agency.
Externalist accounts of sport tend to be regarded as deflationary because they deny, or overlook, that sport has independent value. Internalist theories of sport do not analyse sport based on other social practices or historical processes. Rather, they aim to identify the distinctive values and purposes of sport that differentiate it from other social practices. Proponents of internalism acknowledge the influence on sport of other practices and the larger society, but internalists argue that sport is a practice with its own distinctive value and internal logic.
Thus, the primary goal of internalism is to uncover the intrinsic normative principles of sport. A central task within the philosophy of sport has been to develop an adequate internalist normative theory of sport. Internalist views are typically classified into the following three categories: formalism, conventionalism, and broad internalism or interpretivism. We examine each in turn now. Formalism conceives of sport as constituted solely by written rules: a sport is just the set of written rules that govern it.
On this view, there is no need to look beyond the written rules to determine whether an activity is a sport e. Instead, games are endlessly varied, and, while some games may share features in common with some other games, there is no single element that is shared by all games. Contra Wittgenstein, Suits argues that there are four elements common to every game: goals, means, rules, and a certain attitude among the gameplayers.
Games are goal-directed activities. The pre-lusory goal is a specific state of affairs that game players try to bring about: placing the ball in the hole in golf, crossing the bar in the high jump, and crossing the line in the marathon. These can be achieved prior to the formation of a game. For example, I can place a golf ball in a hole even if no game of golf has begun, or I can jump over a bar even if no high jump competition is underway.
The lusory goal is winning. This can be achieved only in the context of an organised game. The second element of any game is the means. Every game restricts the methods that gameplayers are permitted to use to achieve the pre-lusory goal. Golfers are not allowed to drop the ball into the hole with their hands; high jumpers are not permitted to vault the bar using a trampoline, and marathon runners are forbidden from completing the race using a bicycle.
If the goal of soccer is to put the ball into the goal, it would be much more efficient to kick, head, and carry the ball rather than only kicking and heading it.
The third element of a game is the constitutive rules. Rules provide a complete account of what means are permitted and not permitted within the game. They establish what means can be employed to achieve the pre-lusory goal of the game. These limitations on the permitted means make the game possible, for they erect unnecessary obstacles that participants attempt to overcome in the game.
For instance, boxing rules disallow the use of weapons, such as knives or firearms. This ensures that the sport is a punching contest. The laws of soccer permit the use of any body part other than the arms so that the ball is played predominantly with the feet. In addition to constitutive rules, Suits argues, there are rules of skill, which establish how to play the game well.
Such rules are rules of thumb that a coach may advise a player to follow to help her better execute the skills of the sport e. The final element of gameplaying is attitudinal. Players must commit themselves to playing in accordance with the rules that constitute the game just so that the game can take place.
The type of motivation must be a particular kind or at least must include motivation of a particular kind : players must respect the rules because they wish to play and they endorse the formalist view that breaking the rules necessarily ends the game. So, in the absence of the lusory attitude, it is quite possible, according to Suits, for a player to act in accordance with the rules without actually playing the game. The players accept the constitutive rules because, in the absence of such acceptance, no game is possible.
On this view, if someone decided that she would break the rules whenever she could do so undetected, then, according to Suits, she is not really playing the game — even if no opportunity to break the rules undetected ever arose.