Hydrocephalus is often congenital, meaning babies are born with it, but infants and children can develop it as well. There is no one specific cause of congenital hydrocephalus. However, it may be linked to a genetic defect, or be the result of another disorder such as spina bifida or encephalocele (sac-like protrusions of the brain). Hydrocephalus is rare. It may be caused by any of these problems: The fluid is blocked from flowing through your baby’s head. Your baby has problems absorbing the fluid.
Last Updated on December 2, Hydrocephalus is a condition which affects the brain of the child, usually right from birth. It is one of the most common diseases that affect the central nervous system, with around 2 children out of a thousand live births being affected by this condition. In this article, let us take a deeper look at what hydrocephalus is, why it happens and how parents can effectively treat and take care of their child despite this setback.
Hydrocephalus is what is a securities analyst difficult condition that affects newborn babies, even though it is quite rare. Babies born with hydrocephalus have enlarged heads, due to problems with the brain at a young age. The cerebrospinal fluid is a natural part of the body which help supply nutrients to the brain and keeps it afloat by acting as a shock absorber of sorts.
The brain floats in what is a bandeaukini top cerebrospinal fluid present within the skull, so that it is protected from the impact on the walls of the skull. Due to the retention of surplus fluid within the skull, there occurs large swelling in the brain of the infant. CSF is produced in the brain in the choroid plexus and is extremely important in helping it stay healthy and grow well. However, if it starts to accumulate within the skull, the result is swelling of the brain.
There are channels in the brain called ventricles, and these are the ones responsible for reducing the amount of fluid in the skull. The excess amount of CSF is dumped into the bloodstream, but this does not occur in case of this condition in the babies. Therefore, swelling occurs within the skull and surgery is the only way to rectify the situation.
While hydrocephalus is caused due to the accumulation of the excess CSF within the skull, the reasons as to why this occurs depend upon the type of hydrocephalus. The dimensions of the head increase day by day, in an unnatural fashion. Soon, the how to trim beard line of the head will look disproportionate compared to the rest of his body.
When the what is my imap address of the child splits as a result of the expansion of the brain, parents may be able to notice some suture-like seams on the top of his head. These sutures will also seem to widen as the days pass. The eyes of the child will seem to droop permanently, and the baby will always be looking down and not moving his eyes enough.
Once the swelling of the brain gathers pace, the baby will feel a loss of appetite which leads to poor feeding how to open an independent bookstore. If you try to feed him at this stage, he may try to vomit it all out quickly. Your child will start to become more irritable, and seizures at a young age will also start to become more common.
If you ever observe any one of these symptoms in your infant, you should take him to the doctor as quickly as possible. When you take him to the doctor, he will be able to diagnose the disease and arrive at the correct conclusion with the help of a few tests. These tests include:. Drooping of the eyes will also be checked, and the head is examined thoroughly.
He will also check the soft spot on the skull for any swelling that has occurred. By placing an ultrasound probe on the top of the head, the doctor will be able to get an image of the brain inside the skull. This will help him understand the extent of the fluid buildup.
Commonly known as the CT scan, this uses X-rays from different angles in order to get a 3-D image of the brain. Your child may be sedated so what is the cause of hydrocephalus in baby he stays still during the scan it can last for 20 minutes.
The doctor will be able to obtain extremely accurate pictures of the brain in its current condition using radio waves. This might take an hour, or as less as five minutes depending on the machine used. The above tests are to diagnose the hydrocephalus in the baby after he is born. However, amniocentesis can help the doctor determine this condition before the baby is born. Using fluid from the amniotic sac, the doctor can check for any genetic mutations which might indicate a condition like Ventriculomegaly in the baby before the child is born.
This way, the parents can be prepared to tackle the condition as soon as the child arrives. There are no non-invasive treatments for hydrocephalus, whether it be for older adults or for babies.
The pressure within the skull needs to be released, so the procedure is sure to be invasive major surgery. There are two ways of treating hydrocephalus in children:. This procedure involves a hole being made at the bottom of the ventricles so that the excess CSF in the skull can simply drain off out of the brain. The hole might also be made in between the ventricles to facilitate movement between the channels easily. This is usually carried out as an alternative treatment method to the shunt.
This is the preferred way of treating hydrocephalus in babies. The shunt is a long tube which has a valve, which can be used to control the flow of fluid through the tube. This is inserted surgically into the brain and can help the flow of CSF at normal rates in the correct direction. The other end of this shunt is inserted into the chest or the abdominal cavity, where the CSF is more readily absorbed into the bloodstream. Therefore, the CSF flows directly out of the brain into the abdominal cavity in this case.
If the child is given a shunt implant, he has to be taken to the doctor regular checkups to monitor his condition, even though the implant is a permanent one. Since shunts are an invasive procedure and also quite dangerous, there are other treatment options which may work according to the condition of your child.
These include:. As in the case of any invasive surgical procedure, there are many risks associated with treating hydrocephalus in babies. Some of these risks and limitations have been mentioned what is a resident psd code pa. Whether you diagnosed hydrocephalus in the babies in the womb or after he was born, the treatment is all the same. However, you have to ensure that you let him recover from the surgery at home so that he grows up well without anything hampering him.
Hydrocephalus in babies is one of the hardest things to get through, but the child can grow up to have a normal life if the condition is treated at an early stage. Therefore, take your child to the doctor if you ever feel that something is wrong with the way he has been acting or growing.
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How is Hydrocephalus Diagnosed During Pregnancy?
Hydrocephalus is a condition in which there is excessive fluid in and around the brain. It occurs from a lack of absorption, blockage of flow, or overproduction of the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) that's made inside the ventricles. The ventricles are fluid-filled areas of the brain. The major causes of hydrocephalus include: The flow of cerebral spinal fluid is blocked Abnormal circulation of cerebral spinal fluid causes inadequate absorption by the membranes covering the brain The brain size is small (cerebral atrophy or there is a localized injury), and the fluid volume appears large as it fills in space. Mar 14, · Hydrocephalus is perhaps one of the most unsettling conditions to affect infants. The baby develops massive swelling of the brain due to the retention of surplus cerebrospinal fluid. And, the disconcerting swelling holds the potential to damage the brain eventually.
Hydrocephalus is a condition in which there is excessive fluid in and around the brain. It occurs from a lack of absorption, blockage of flow, or overproduction of the cerebral spinal fluid CSF that's made inside the ventricles. The ventricles are fluid-filled areas of the brain. The CSF disperses from the ventricles around the brain and spinal cord. Too much CSF may result in a buildup of fluid that can cause the pressure inside of the head to increase.
In a child, this causes the bones of the skull to expand and separate to a larger-than-normal appearance. Hydrocephalus occurs in approximately one out of births. The following are the primary reasons why hydrocephalus occurs:.
Hydrocephalus can occur either as a condition present at birth congenital , or it can be acquired later in life. In some babies the condition is genetic, such as in babies with congenital aqueductal stenosis. Other conditions, such as neural tube defects like spina bifida , are also associated with hydrocephalus. Other causes include premature birth, infections, tumors or bleeding inside the brain. The following are the most common symptoms of hydrocephalus in babies.
However, each baby may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:. The symptoms of hydrocephalus may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Always consult your baby's doctor for a diagnosis. Hydrocephalus may be diagnosed before birth by prenatal ultrasound , a diagnostic imaging technique which uses high-frequency sound waves and a computer to create images of blood vessels, tissues, and organs.
Ultrasounds are used to view internal organs as they function, and to assess blood flow through various vessels. In many cases, hydrocephalus doesn't develop until the third trimester of the pregnancy and, therefore, may not be seen on ultrasounds performed earlier in pregnancy. The diagnosis of congenital hydrocephalus may be made at birth and after diagnostic testing.
During the examination, the doctor obtains a complete prenatal and birth history of the baby. He or she may also ask if there's a family history of hydrocephalus or other medical problems. The doctor will also ask about developmental milestones in older babies since hydrocephalus can be associated with developmental delay. Developmental delays may require further medical follow-up for underlying problems. The baby's head may appear larger than normal.
A measurement of the circumference of the baby's head is taken and compared to a graph that can identify normal and abnormal ranges for a baby's age. The goal of treatment is to reduce the pressure in the baby's head and to properly drain the cerebral spinal fluid CSF.
Occasionally, medications or procedures to draw off the extra CSF may be used. Surgery may be needed for some cases of hydrocephalus. Surgery usually involves placing a mechanical shunting device into the baby's head to help drain the extra CSF from the brain and redirect the extra fluid to another part of the body to be absorbed. A common type of shunt is the ventriculoperitoneal shunt.
This directs the fluid into the abdominal cavity. The shunt redirects the CSF out of the head through the tubing to a location elsewhere in the body where it can absorbed. The shunt usually runs behind the ear and the tubing is tunneled under the skin to the area of the abdomen, heart, or lung. Your baby's doctor will determine the drainage location based on your baby's condition, age, and other factors.
The abdomen is generally the first choice. These symptoms require prompt medical evaluation. Following surgery, you'll receive instructions on how to care for your baby at home and information about signs or symptoms requiring immediate medical attention. Hydrocephalus can affect the brain and a baby's development. The extent of the problem is dependent on the severity of the hydrocephalus, and the presence of brain or other organ system problems.
The key to treating hydrocephalus is early detection, proper treatment, and prevention of infection. A baby with hydrocephalus requires frequent medical evaluations to ensure proper shunt function. The medical team works closely with the family to provide education and guidance as the baby grows and develops. Genetic counseling may be recommended by the baby's doctor to discuss the risk for recurrence in future pregnancies, as well as prenatal testing for hydrocephalus.
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The Neonatal-Perinatal Fellowship Program is a 3 year program designed to provide training in neonatal-perinatal medicine for candidates who have successfully completed their pediatric residency training.
The Child Neurology fellowship is an ACGME-accredited categorical residency position offering a two year pediatric and a three year neurology training program to achieve board eligibility and full qualification for a career in pediatric neurology including board eligibility in pediatrics.
We care about your privacy. Read about your rights and how we protect your data. In this section More on this Topic. Coronavirus Update: What patients and families need to know Dismiss Alert. Pediatric Hydrocephalus. What is hydrocephalus? Prevention and Risk Assessment What causes hydrocephalus? The following are the primary reasons why hydrocephalus occurs: Blockage of the CSF flow inside of the head Problems absorbing CSF Overproduction of CSF rare Hydrocephalus can occur either as a condition present at birth congenital , or it can be acquired later in life.
Causes of acquired hydrocephalus may include: Tumor Infection Prematurity Bleeding inside the head Birth injury Abnormal blood vessel formation inside of the head Trauma. Symptoms may include: A full or bulging fontanel soft spot located on the top of the head Increasing head circumference size Seizures Bulging eyes and an inability of the baby to look upward with the head facing forward Prominent scalp veins Increased irritability High-pitched cry Poor feeding Projectile vomiting Sleepiness or less alert than usual Developmental delays The symptoms of hydrocephalus may resemble other conditions or medical problems.
Diagnostic tests that may be performed to confirm the diagnosis of hydrocephalus include: Ultrasound. This diagnostic procedure uses sound waves to create an image of an internal portion of the body and can be used to determine the size of the ventricles in the womb and in neonates. Magnetic resonance imaging MRI. This diagnostic procedure uses a combination of large magnets, radio frequencies, and a computer to produce detailed images of organs and structures within the body.
Computed tomography CT scan. This diagnostic imaging procedure uses a combination of X-rays and computer technology to produce horizontal, or axial, images often called slices of the body. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat and organs. CT scans are more detailed than general X-rays. Specific treatment for hydrocephalus will be determined by your baby's doctor based on: Your baby's gestational age, overall health, and medical history The extent of the condition The type or cause of condition Your baby's tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies Expectations for the course of the condition Your opinion or preference The goal of treatment is to reduce the pressure in the baby's head and to properly drain the cerebral spinal fluid CSF.
Click Image to Enlarge The shunt consists of three parts: A tube that's placed inside the ventricular space A reservoir and valve to control the flow of CSF Tubing that's directed under the skin to the abdomen, or less commonly to the heart or lung area The shunt redirects the CSF out of the head through the tubing to a location elsewhere in the body where it can absorbed. Potential complications from the shunts or surgery can include: Infection Shunt malfunction that results in underdrainage or overdrainage of the CSF Bleeding These symptoms require prompt medical evaluation.
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Child Neurology Fellowship The Child Neurology fellowship is an ACGME-accredited categorical residency position offering a two year pediatric and a three year neurology training program to achieve board eligibility and full qualification for a career in pediatric neurology including board eligibility in pediatrics.