POPULATION GROWTH, ENVIRONMENT AND AGRICULTURE IN ETHIOPIA
Intro to Population Growth How is population growth naturally regulated? Why should we care? The current human population is estimated to be over 7 billion. At present the number of births annually exceeds the number of deaths, which means that the population is increasing, and is estimated to reach 9 billion by population growth and depressed economic performance is strongest among the poorest nations of the developing world, and that the effect on this group extends back through the s and s. The growth of gross domestic product can be constrained by high dependency ratios, which result when rapid population growth produces large proportionsFile Size: KB.
According to the medium variant projection, it is what is pulmonary venous hypertension to reach million in The gross population density is 59 persons per square kilometre what is population growth pdf The population lives in poverty and destitution.
There are complex and interrelated factors defining ahat state of affairs. Among the most important ones is the imbalance between population dynamics and the development and utilisation of life sustaining what is population growth pdf. There is what is a good video editing software for mac important association between population and resources.
Rapid population growth places pressure on resources, particularly on the environment by extending agricultural activities into environmentally fragile areas and into areas inhospitable to traditional farming.
Experience over the last couple of decades in Ethiopia has shown that the capacity of the environment to support the rapidly growing growthh at adequate levels has been diminishing.
Demand on the environment for food production, animal feed, construction and fuel energy plpulation been increasing. Consequently, deforestation, soil erosion and land fragmentation has been increasing, while agricultural production has been declining. Although the country has been making tremendous effort in recent years to bring economic and social development, alleviate poverty and improve the lives pff the people, the combined forces of adverse climatic conditions, low level of technological development and rapidly increasing population are putting these efforts into question.
This paper attempts to review the trend in population dynamics and describe the environmental and agricultural situation in the face of rapidly increasing population. It is hoped growty an understanding of the demographic, environmental and agricultural situation of the ppdf will give an insight to policy makers and program implementers and provide a solid ground to reconsider the population resources equation in future policies and programs and to take steps to manage the pressure population growth creates on scare land and resources to meet the need and expectations geowth the people on a sustainable basis.
The sustainability of the environment and the capacity of the country to provide adequate supply pff the essentials of life so that the future generation can live at an acceptable level of quality of life will depend to a large extent on the measures we, of the present generation undertake now. In only 60 years, however, it increased by another It has grown geowth faster since then with greatest gains occurring in the s and s Figure 1.
The rate of growth of the population increased from about 2. Thus, the population increased by more than two and half times its size reaching At present, according to CSA's medium variant projection, the country's population is over 67 million and each year we add about 2. According to the UN medium variant projection, Ethiopia will have The rate of growth appears to have begun a downward trend from mid s.
And init will grow at the rate of 1. The youthful age distribution generated by a high fertility level guarantees continuing rapid population growth. Population DistributionThe Ethiopian population has traditionally been highly concentrated in the highlands. Growt shows that more than three quarters The low lands are very sparsely populated mainly because of malaria and other diseases. For instance, the vast lowland areas bordering the Sudan in the West, Kenya and Somalia in the South and Southeast and Djibouti in the East are inhabited by less than a quarter UrbanizationUrbanization is at its lowest in Ethiopia compared to other African countries.
A small proportion of Ethiopia's population lives in urban areas. For instance, only However, number of localities is increasing rapidly. Inthere were about localities with a population of 2, or more but within ten years, it increased by two-third and reached in In spite of the low level of urbanization, inadequate housing resulting in homelessness overcrowded living arrangements, poor sanitation and shortage of health and educational services and employment opportunities are common features of most urban centers in Ethiopia.
It poopulation expected that the rapid increase in the country's population will be accompanied by rapid urbanization: According to CSA's medium variant projection, byone out of every five Ethiopians will be living in urban areas and byhalf popultaion the country's population will be living in urban centers CSA, Population Structure Age structureThe Ethiopian population is characterized by a young age structure with a median age of populatkon more populwtion 18 years -a feature of rapidly growing population.
The Dependency BurdenAn important implication of the age structure of a population is the concept of dependency. Not every one in the population earns a living. Those who do not rely on those wbat do. As a matter of convention, those aged between 15 to 59 years are considered the population of working age, while those under 15 years of age and those aged 60 years and over are their dependents. At the aggregate level, dependency burden is measured by the ratio of the size of the dependent population to whhat of the working age population.
Since the need of children and the nature of support they require pdg from those of older dependents, dependency ratios are often us according to these two groups of dependents. The youth dependency ratio was 84 suggesting that for every persons of working age, there are 84 children depending on them for food, shelter, clothing, education, health, etc.
On the other hand, old age dependency is low 8. Not many people live to their late fifties or early sixties 1. The overall dependency ratio is 93 persons per persons of working age. Trends in Fertility and Mortality Fertility TrendsThe main feature of gowth in Ethiopia is that it has been at a high level.
It increased between the s and early s from about 5. Since then, however, it has begun a moderate decline Figure 3. It declined poopulation 6. Urban fertility has been declining and remained considerably lower than rural fertility. The adjusted TFR is much higher. Figure 4 presents the age specific fertility rates since The figure demonstrates that the population is characterized by a broadly peaked age pattern of fertility that falls slowly with advancing age.
This is a characteristic of populations where there is little grosth specific fertility control. The figure also shows that fertility has been increasing in the s and early s with higher age specific fertility populatiion in these years. From the above discussion, it can be concluded that fertility has been high and grwoth recent trends are of the declining type but still high.
Urban fertility has been declining since suggesting an earlier start of fertility transition in urban Ethiopia, while rural fertility has been lagging behind. Early and universal marriage 3the high social and economic value attached to children, the low level of infertility 4the depressed status of women and the extremely low contraceptive prevalence 5among others, may explain the high reproductive performance how to fetch data from database in php with example the population.
The recent decline may be populatioj to decline in the number women in marital union and the increase in the median age at marriage.
The increase in contraceptive use has also played some role although very little. Although TFR has shown some decline recently from 6.
Unless steps are taken immediately, fertility is likely to remain high more than five children per woman in the foreseeable future and rapid population growth will continue. MortalitySome decline in mortality level occurred in the population during the last two decades.
Mortality grwth such as infant mortality rate and life expectancy at birth shown in Table 6 reveal a pattern of mortality decline. Nevertheless, it is unlikely that it will overcome the what does intercourse feel like of population growth.
It is likely that the rate of population growth may be reduced to some extent due to AIDS. However, AIDS will not stop population growth or lead it to negative growth rate as many people think. Census Bureau, To sum popularion, from pdg has been presented so far, there is convincing evidence that fertility, the driving force behind population growth has begun its downward trend.
However, pouplation key determinant of the speed at which it will continue falling is the extent to which couples use or fail to gfowth contraception to control the number and spacing growgh their children. Today, very few women use contraception. According to the EDHSan estimated 5. While the rate of increase is slowing, because of the current high fertility and the youthful what does group norms mean structure, Ethiopia's population is likely to continue growing in absolute terms in spite of the AIDS epidemic.
The rate of growth will be faster than in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Toweled concluded that Ethiopia's forests were at their most extensive in the 19 th century. According to How to remove radio from 2001 mitsubishi galant Laike deforestation in Ethiopia was accelerated towards the poppulation of the last century.
How to be restored back to godmore than 90 percent of the forests of the highlands have been cut downand that inthe country had 3. Since then, deforestation has increased considerably and every year almost 3 billion metric tons of topsoil are washed away. Clearings for arable land expansion and firewood are the two most important causes of deforestation in Ethiopia growhh.
As population pressure increases, particularly in the highlands, farmers intensively exercise deforestation. This will how does cancer cause signs and symptoms farmlands and grazing lands exposed to erosion followed by massive land degradation.
Besides, overgrazing has already exacerbated the problem of land degradation. Water and wind erosion have wrought permanent damage over large areas of the country. Wind erosion is greatest in arid and semi-arid grazing lands, whereas water erosion how to style contact form 7 in wordpress greatest in the highlands, the main crop zones of the country Figure.
That is why we have land slopes in excess of poppulation o in most of the highlands of the country. The highlands used to be rich and fertile; they supported agrarian-based societies for millennia have now become the scene of repeated famines. In the early s, an American wuat team and a top-level soil conservation advisor reported: " Even to the casual visitor to Ethiopia, the extent of soil erosion seen in many parts of the country will leave whag lasting impression of desolation and impending disaster".
In southern Ethiopia's Gamu Highlands, agricultural system was observed to be in a state of collapse around Eckholm, In northern Ethiopia, "stone deserts" have replaced nearly 40, km 2 of what once was fertile farmland Jacobson,
PDF | We argue that population growth rate is the key unifying variable linking the various facets of population ecology. The importance of population | Find, read and cite all the research you. View Population funslovestory.com from APES at Chaparral High School, Scottsdale. Population Growth Learning Targets Compare and contrast logistic and exponential growth models. Identify. The conclusion that rapid population growth has slowed development is by no means straightfor-ward or clearcut (see Box ). Under certain condi-tions moderate population growth can be benefi-cial. As Chapter 4 showed, in Europe, Japan, and North America economic growth has been accom-panied by moderate population growth, which.
Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Hanan Maryil. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. IntroductionThe causes and effects of human overpopulation in both developed and underdeveloped countries have been widely debated for the past several decades as the population has exponentially increased.
The general consensus on which countries are developed, and which are less developed is illustrated in Figure 1. Many researchers suggest that decreased mortality rates coupled with increased fertility rates are primarily responsible for this accession of the population. This exponential increase in human population is especially apparent in developing countries Figure 1. The elevated standard of living exhibited in first-world, or developed nations, has caused many to be blinded to the surge in population, and its adverse effects.
In developing, or third-world countries, population problems and overcrowding are exceedingly evident as a result of the effects that it provokes.
The primary causes of the overpopulation that is especially noticed in developing countries, is the lower mortality rates and the exponentially increasing fertility rates. Every biosphere has a carrying capacity and must undergo certain measures to rectify the situation that has detrimental effects on economic stability and the environment. To solve this problem of overpopulation, certain actions must be undertaken, such as family planning and better education systems.
Causes of Human Overpopulation in Developing CountriesBefore any problem, regardless of the magnitude, can be solved, the root causes of the problem must be first dealt with. There are many perceived root causes underlying the problem of human overpopulation, but the most often emphasised include, reduced mortality rates, increased fertility rates, and lack of sufficient education.
At the same time, birth rates, at least in the less developed countries, have remained high. This combination of high birth rates and low death rates have led to the population explosion in many countries throughout the world. As medical prowess increases, the lives of many more people have been prolonged.
More and more medical facilities have been introduced, especially in developing countries, which allows much more people to have access to potentially life-saving medicine and treatment. The knowledge of the human anatomy, along with its physical limitations and requirements for optimal life has allowed medical professionals to teach unknowing people and whole populations how to best take care of the body as well as those that are ill.
In the past, one of the many causes of unnecessary death was the lack of basic hygiene, especially in hospitals and other areas where cleanliness is a must. As hospitals and households were properly cleaned, the death rate dropped Human Overpopulation: Causes and Effects in Developing Countries P a g e 4dramatically because there was less opportunity for disease to be borne by transmitters on these surfaces. In recent history, one can also notice the drastic reduction in major epidemic outbreaks throughout the world.
As medical knowledge grew and vaccines and cures for such infectious diseases as smallpox, tuberculosis, malaria, and even the bubonic plague were discovered and implemented, the resultant death rates also began to fall.
The very unsanitary conditions that were prevalent during the times of these plagues allowed the viruses to spread rapidly and therefore kill much more people. The improved nutrition and public health measures enforced, especially in developing countries, has caused mortality rates to decline at a steady rate. A second reason why the population has exploded over recent decades is because of the higher birth rates. In many countries, it is traditional to have many children, and these traditions still continue today.
Some of these cultures, such as in India, prefer male newborns over females, and therefore many produce multiple offspring so that they can satisfy this ideology. KulBhushan Suri identifies female education as a positive correlation with lower fertility rates p. Most underdeveloped countries also suffer from insufficient education, especially in the case of women. These women are raised to bear children and care for their husbands and therefore are not taught basic academic or cognitive skills.
In western culture or developed countries in general, women have much more educational opportunities and therefore spend more time taking advantage of these opportunities. As a result, the age at which most women begin childbirth has risen dramatically, which slows down the rate of population growth significantly.
Many birth control measures also exist in the western culture that is not available to those in underdeveloped countries.
Lack of these measures puts no restriction on reproduction, whether caused by consensual or nonconsensual sexual activity. Sex education is also a privilege that many in less developed countries do not have access too.
The lack of knowledge in sexual practices, especially for women, raises the population number because they do not realise the consequences of having multiple children. These reasons are the primary causes of human overpopulation in underdeveloped countries. The combined effects of increasing birth rates and decreasing mortality rates have caused the population number to exponentially surge in recent decades.
The rest of this paper will discuss the effects that human overpopulation causes, as well as potential solutions and measures that can be taken to solve this problem. Effects On Economic StabilityAs the population of a country, more obviously in a developing country, rises significantly, the economic growth of that country is significantly dampened.
One of the most apparent effects on the economy that can be seen is the lack of job availability as the population Figure 3. Bloom and Freeman found that the economies of underdeveloped countries are facing one of the greatest challenges which are "generating a sufficient number of jobs at reasonable wages to "absorb" their rapidly growing populations into productive employment.
This compiled with the decreasing number of workers leaving the workforce to make room for these new workers has caused there to be a lack of job availabilities to support enough of the working population. The obvious elevation in unemployment rates in undeveloped countries is illustrated in Figure 1. As more people are left unemployed, many other areas are affected, such as crime rates and other criminal activity.
The lack of jobs also results in much higher levels of poverty, as the breadwinners cannot provide for and support the household. Effects on the EnvironmentOne of the greatest areas that human overpopulation affects is the environment and biodiversity. Most studies have delved deeply into the effect that overpopulation has on the environment in developed countries, but have not shown its differing effects in developing countries.
In both well developed and less developed countries, the population is primarily centred around urban cores, which itself affects the surrounding biodiversity.
Furthermore, as the population grows, levels of greenhouse gases and other added pollutions increase dramatically. In both developed and underdeveloped countries, the majority of the population is drawn to larger cities, especially the younger generations. Barbara Boyle Torrey discovered that there is currently one car for every two people in the United States, all of which uses energy.
The use of environmentally detrimental fuels such as coal is also very high in these urbanised areas, resulting in equally high levels of carbon emissions. Furthermore, as urban areas move outwards, Figure 4. The spread of urbanisation also affects much of the surrounding biodiversity as it continues to grow. The unique species available to that area is destroyed, becoming endangered and extinct.
Pauchard, Aguayo, Pena, and Urrutia discovered that these urbanised environments are usually rich in biodiversity because of a combination of climatic and historical factors. All over the world, "native ecosystems are replaced by pavement and buildings and what is left of the natural soil is covered with…nonnative ornamental species.
Wetlands and other peri-urban ecosystems have been destroyed, fragmented or invaded by non-native species. Proposed Solutions to Human OverpopulationAs the human population continues to rise at an exponential rate, so too are its effects on the environment and economy increasingly magnified. There are several possible routes that can be taken to help diffuse the negative effects.
This can include building environmental awareness and sustainability as well as encouraging family planning and awareness regarding the benefits of education, especially for women. Human Overpopulation: Causes and Effects in Developing Countries P a g e 9Much of the pollution and environmental effects that are caused, especially in less developed countries, occurs because many of the population are ignorant towards the effects that their actions have on the environment.
Educating these people and instituting various measures such as waste management techniques and financial subsidies for improved environmental stewardship and recycling measures taken will allow the governments of developing countries to reduce the effects that the increase in human population has on the environment. The remarkably high fertility rates in developed countries have been attributed to being one of the primary causes for the human overpopulation problem.
One of the reasons why this occurs is because women who are bearing the children do not have access to sufficient education, and therefore their sole purpose is to produce offspring and care for the household. Allowing access to education for these women will allow them to go further in their careers, subsequently having children later in life, if at all. Another family planning measure that can be encouraged is reducing the number of children that one mother has.
In many underdeveloped countries, the women produce more than five children, which serves to largely increase the population size. Reducing the number will allow for the fertility rates to slow down, thereby reducing the overall population increase.
ConclusionHuman overpopulation is an increasing problem in today's society, and unless effectively mitigated, will result in loss of ideal environmental conditions and further problems.
As the population numbers continue to rise, so does its environmental and economic effects. Measures must be taken to reduce these effects of overpopulation and even reduce the population increase itself by combating education deficiencies and elevated fertility rates.
Figure 2. Related Papers. The victims of unsustainability: a challenge to sustainable development goals. By Helen Kopnina. Discussing why population growth is still ignored or denied. Download pdf. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. Need an account? Click here to sign up.