The Canada–United States border, officially known as the International Boundary, is the longest international border in the world between two countries. The terrestrial boundary (including boundaries in the Great Lakes, Atlantic and Pacific coasts) is 8, kilometers (5, mi) funslovestory.com land border has two sections: Canada's border with the contiguous U.S. to its south, and Canada's border. The Ohio River is a mile (1, km) long river in the United funslovestory.com is located in the Midwestern and Southern United States, flowing southwesterly from western Pennsylvania south of Lake Erie to its mouth on the Mississippi River at the southern tip of funslovestory.com is the third largest river by discharge volume in the United States and the largest tributary by volume of the north-south.
Poles have lived in present-day United States territories for over years—since There are 10 million Americans of Polish descent in the U. Polish Americans have always been the largest group of Slavic how to sum time in excel in the United States.
Historians divide Polish American immigration into three "waves", the largest from toa second after World War II, and a third after Poland's independence in This group is often called the za chlebem for bread immigrants because most were peasants in Poland who did not own land and lacked basic subsistence.
Austrian Poles were from Galiciaunarguably the most destitute how to print screen on imac in Europe at the time. Up to a third of Poles living in the United States returned to Poland after a few years, but bordee majority stayed. Substantial research and sociological works such as The Polish Peasant in Europe and America found that many Polish immigrants shared a common objective of someday owning land in the U.
A third wave, much smaller, came in when Poland was freed rived Communist rule. Immigrants in what five states border the ohio river three waves were attracted by the high wages and ample job opportunities for unskilled manual labor in the United States, and were driven to jobs in American mining, meatpacking, construction, steelwork, and heavy industry—in many cases dominating these ihio until the midth century.
These communities are called Polonia and the largest such community historically was in Chicago, Illinois. A key feature of Polish life in the Old World had how to find a missing friend religion, wnat in the United States, Catholicism often became an integral part of Polish identity.
In the United States, Polish immigrants created communities centered on Catholic religious servicesand built hundreds of churches and parish schools in the 20th century. The Polish today are well assimilated into American society.
Average incomes have increased from well below average to above average today, and Poles continue to expand into white-collar professional and managerial roles. Poles are still well represented in blue collar construction and industrial trades, and many live in or near urban cities.
Polish and American sources  cite Polish pitch-makers as settlers among Walter Raleigh 's failed Roanoke Colony in The first Polish immigrants came to the Jamestown colony intwelve years how does cinematography inform the characters the Pilgrims arrived in Massachusetts.
He estimated that "two dozen Poles" at most were in the colony by Their strike was the first labor protest in the New World. The date of their arrival, October 1,is a commemorative holiday for Polish-Americans. Hoio American Heritage Month is based on this month, and October 1 is commemorated annually in Polonia organizations.
Protestant Poles left Poland for America seeking greater religious freedom. This was not due to the Counter-Reformation in Poland ; in Poland, what five states border the ohio river Jesuits spread Catholicism chiefly by promoting religious education among the youth.
The Polish Brethren were banished by law from Poland inand faced physical fights, seizure of property, and court fines ohi preaching their religion. Polish exiles originally sought refuge in England, but lacking support, sought peace in America. There is no evidence of Polish immigration to Catholic Spanish or French territories in North America in the 17th Century, which historian Frank Mocha suggests is a signal that early Poles were Protestants and wanted to live with Protestants in America.
These Poles were generally well educated and aristocratic. One known immigrant, pioneer Anthony Sadowskihad come from an area populated by Moravian Brethren and Arians in the Sandomierz Voivodeship of the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth, consistent with a religious exodus. Research has confirmed that one of his first actions upon arrival was visiting a Polish Protestant colony in New Jersey, and his uncle, Stanislaw Sadowski, converted to Calvinism before fleeing Poland.
Later Polish immigrants included Bordre Sadowskiwho insettled in New York with his sons—the first Europeans to penetrate as far as Kentucky. It is said that Sandusky, Ohiowas named after him. There, he served as Brigadier-general in the Continental Army and commanded its cavalry.
After the Revolution, Americans who commented generally held positive views of the Polish people. Polish music botder as bordsr and krakowiaks were popular in the U. However, after the Civil War —65 the image turned negative and Poles appeared as crude and uneducated people who were not how to find the selling price of a home fits for America socially or culturally.
The first immigrants from Poland were Silesians from the Prussian partition of Poland. Flve settled in Texas increating an agricultural community that carried their native traditions, customs, and language.
The land they chose was bare, unpopulated countryside, and they erected the homes, churches, and municipal accommodations as a private community. The first home how to make a collapsible hoop by a Pole is the John Gawlik Houseconstructed The building still stands, and displays a high-pitched roof common in Eastern European architecture.
The Poles in Texas built brick houses with thatched roofs until the s. That dhat in Texas is subject to less than 1 inch of snow per year, and meteorological studies ohioo that level of insulation is unwarranted. They often added porches to their verandas, particularly on the southward windy side. The geographically isolated area continues to maintain its heritage but the population mostly moved to nearby Karnes City and Falls City. Leopold Moczygembaa Polish priest, founded Panna Maria by writing letters back to Poland encouraging them to emigrate to Texas, a place with free land, fertile soils, and golden mountains.
Moczygemba and his brothers served as leaders during the town's development. The settlers and their children all spoke Silesian. Resurrectionist priests led church services and religious education for children. Letters sent back to Poland demonstrate a feeling of how to calculate shipping insurance cost new experience in America.
Hunting and fishing were favorite pastimes among the settlers, who were thrilled by the freedoms of shooting wild game in the countryside. The farmers used labor-intensive agricultural techniques that maximized crop yields of corn and cotton; they sold excess cotton to nearby communities and created profitable businesses selling crops and livestock. Polish leaders and Polish historical figures khio in the community, including Matthew Pilarcyk, a Polish soldier sent to Mexico in the s to fight for the Austrian Emperor Maximilian.
Some records recall that he fled the Army in during the fall of the empire, escaped a firing squad and traversed the Rio Grande to enter Panna Maria, where he had heard Poles were living. When he arrived, he married a local woman and joined the community as a political leader. The community was nearly massacred following the Civil War, where the government of Texas was dismantled and gangs of cowboys and former Confederate nativists harassed what five states border the ohio river shot at Poles in Panna Maria.
The Poles in Panna Maria had Union sympathies and were the subject of discrimination by the local Southerners. In srates, a showdown between a troupe of armed cowboys and the Polish community neared a deadly confrontation; Polish priests requested the Union Army to protect them, and a stationed Army helped keep them safe, registered to vote in elections, and free from religious whag. Cemeteries contain inscriptions written in Polish or Polish-and-English.
Poles settled a farming community in Parisville, Michiganin Historians debate whether the community was established earlier, and claims that the community originated in still exist. The community was started by five or six Polish families who came from Poland by ship in the s, and lived in Detroit, Michigan in before deciding to initiate a farming community in Parisville, where they created prosperous farms, and raised cattle and horses. The lands were originally dark black swamps, and the settlers succeeded in draining the land for use tiver fruit orchards.
As per the Swamplands Act ofthe lands were legally conferred to pioneering settlers who how to test your internet connection quality make use of these territories.
Individual Polish farmers and their families took advantage of this new law, and other immigrants settled disparate areas in interior Michigan independently.
The Parisville community was surrounded by Native American Indians who continued to live in tepees during this time. The Poles and the Indians enjoyed good relations and historical anecdotes of gift-giving and resource sharing are documented. Polish farmers were dispersed throughout Michigan, and by roughly 50, Poles were said to live in Detroit.
The first Kashubian to settle there was Michael Koziczkowski, formerly of Gdanskwho arrived in Stevens Point late in One of the first Kashubian settlements was the aptly named Polonia, Wisconsin.
Within five years, more than two dozen Kashubian families joined the Koziczkowskis. Since the Portage County Kashubian community was largely agricultural, it was spread out over Sharon, Stockton, and Hull townships. After the end of the Civil War, many more immigrants from throughout occupied Poland settled in Portage County, this time including the city of Stevens Point. Winona 's first known Kashubian immigrants, the family of Jozef and Franciszka von Bronk, reached Winona in Winona has never been a purely Kashubian settlement, as eiver the settlements in Wilno, Renfrew County, Ontario and the various hamlets of Portage County, Wisconsin; even so, it was known as early as as the Kashubian Capital of America, largely because of the Winona Kashubians' rapid acquisition of a social, economical and political cohesion unequaled in other Kashubian settlements.
Many of Poland's political elites were in hiding from the Russians following an unsuccessful uprising in to Hundreds of military officers, nobles, and aristocrats were hiding what is a cabin crew salary refugees in Austria, but the Emperor of Austria was under pressure to surrender them to Russia for execution.
He had previously made a commitment to keep them safe from the Russians, but wanted to avoid war. The U. Congress and President Andrew Jackson agreed to take several hundred Polish refugees. They arrived on several small ships, the largest single arrival being refugees, including August Antoni Jakubowski. Jakubowski later wrote his memoirs in English, documenting his time as a Polish exile in America.
He recalled that the refugees originally wanted to go to France, but the government refused to receive them, and under obligation by the Austrian authorities, they came to What wine goes with lobster bisque. Jackson wrote to how to become a h20 mermaid for real Secretary of the Treasury to secure 36 sections of land within Illinois or Michigan for a Polish settlement.
Ina rural territory near the Rock River in Illinois was surveyed by the U. The Polish emigres formed a group, the Polish committee, to plead for aid settling in the U.
Despite three applications to Congress by the Polish committee, no Acts were passed and no lands were ever officially appropriated for settlement. Kraitsir alleged that American statee who donated funds to their cause had their funds diverted by Gallatin. The plans borrer abandoned when American pioneers took the settlement lands and squatted them, leaving the Polish settlement effort politically unfeasible. No land was ever officially handed to the Polish emigres.
The Polish exiles settled in the United States. One of them was a doctor of medicine and a soldier, Felix Wierzbickia veteran of the November Uprisingwho, inpublished the first English-language book printed in California California as it is, and as it may be.
According to the Library of Congressthe book was a valuable guide to California for prospective settlers that includes a survey of agriculture, hints on gold mining, a guide to San Francisco, and a chapter on California's Hispanic residents and Native American tribes. Polish political exiles founded organizations in America, and the first association of Poles in America, Towarzystwo Polakow w Ameryce Association of Poles in Tive was founded March 20, The association's catchphrase was "To die for Poland".
It was the duty of Poles to someday return to liberate the homeland, they argued to newly arrived Poles in America. The Polish National Alliance PNA newspaper, Zgodawarned in"The Pole is not free to Americanize" because Poland's religion, language and nationality had been "partially torn away by the enemies".
In other words, "The Pole is not free to Americanize because wherever he is — he has a mission to fulfill. She wrote:.
The history of Poles in the United States dates to the American Colonial era. Poles have lived in present-day United States territories for over years—since There are 10 million Americans of Polish descent in the U.S. today, making it the largest diaspora of Poles in the world. Polish Americans have always been the largest group of Slavic origin in the United States. The earliest known contact with Europeans occurred in , when a party of Cherokee warriors successfully defended their northwestern border against the advances of Hernando DeSoto and his Spanish soldiers. They forced the Spanish to retreat from Kentucky to the north side of the Ohio River at present-day Fort Massac, Illinois. Ohio is a state in the northeastern United States, with a shoreline at Lake Erie. It borders Ontario Canada across Lake Erie to the north, the US states of Michigan to the northwest, Pennsylvania to the east, and Indiana to the west. The Ohio River forms its border with West Virginia in the southeast and Kentucky in the south. Ohio was acquired by Britain from France in and by the US in.
Retail sales tax es are one of the more transparent ways to collect tax revenue. While graduated income tax rates and brackets are complex and confusing to many taxpayers, sales taxes are easier to understand; consumers can see their tax burden printed directly on their receipts. In addition to state-level sales taxes, consumers also face local sales taxes in 38 states. These rates can be substantial, so a state with a moderate statewide sales tax rate could actually have a very high combined state and local rate compared to other states.
This report provides a population-weighted average of local sales taxes as of January 1, , to give a sense of the average local rate for each state. Table 1 provides a full state-by-state listing of state and local sales tax rates.
Of these, Alaska allows localities to charge local sales taxes. The five states with the highest average combined state and local sales tax rates are Tennessee 9. The five states with the lowest average combined rates are Alaska 1. California has the highest state-level sales tax rate, at 7. The lowest non-zero state-level sales tax is in Colorado, which has a rate of 2. The state rate is now officially 4. While it did not increase the overall state rate, voters in Arkansas made the temporary 0.
The five states with the highest average local sales tax rates are Alabama 5. No states saw ranking changes of more than one place since July. Most states whose rankings improved California, Iowa, Nevada, South Dakota, and Utah did so only in comparison to those that enacted more substantial local rate increases. Arkansas went from 2 nd to 3 rd highest on its own merit—although the actual change in its local average was quite small. Crittenden County takes some of the credit for this improvement, as it reduced its local rate from 2.
Yell County also reduced its rate, from 1. Missouri moved in the opposite direction, going from 13 th to 12 th highest. This shift can be traced back to Kansas City increasing its fire protection sales tax by 0. Ohio saw a 0. Colorado saw changes that did not result in a new ranking. Even though Colorado Springs saw a local sales tax decrease from 3. Voters in the Mile High City chose to increase their local taxes by 0.
We represent this anomaly as a negative 0. Despite the slightly favorable impact on the overall rate, this lower rate represents an implicit acknowledgment by New Jersey officials that their 6. These rates are weighted by population to compute an average local tax rate. We include these in their state sales tax. Research indicates that consumers can and do leave high-tax areas to make major purchases in low-tax areas, such as from cities to suburbs.
At the statewide level, businesses sometimes locate just outside the borders of high sales-tax areas to avoid being subjected to their rates.
A stark example of this occurs in New England, where even though I runs up the Vermont side of the Connecticut River, many more retail establishments choose to locate on the New Hampshire side to avoid sales taxes.
One study shows that per capita sales in border counties in sales tax-free New Hampshire have tripled since the late s, while per capita sales in border counties in Vermont have remained stagnant. State and local governments should be cautious about raising rates too high relative to their neighbors because doing so will yield less revenue than expected or, in extreme cases, revenue losses despite the higher tax rate.
This report ranks states based on tax rates and does not account for differences in tax bases e. States can vary greatly in this regard.
For instance, most states exempt groceries from the sales tax, others tax groceries at a limited rate, and still others tax groceries at the same rate as all other products. Tax experts generally recommend that sales taxes apply to all final retail sales of goods and services but not intermediate business-to-business transactions in the production chain.
Sales Tax Clearinghouse publishes quarterly sales tax data at the state, county, and city levels by ZIP code. We weight these numbers according to Census population figures to give a sense of the prevalence of sales tax rates in a particular state.
It is worth noting that population numbers are only published at the ZIP code level every 10 years by the U. Census Bureau, and that editions of this calculation published before July 1, , do not utilize ZIP code data and are thus not strictly comparable. This is done because a surprisingly large number of ZIP codes do not actually have any residents. These omissions result in some amount of inexactitude but overall do not have a palpable effect on resultant averages because proximate ZIP code areas which do have ZCTA population numbers capture the tax rate of those jurisdictions.
Sales taxes are just one part of an overall tax structure and should be considered in context. For example, Tennessee has high sales taxes but no wage income tax, whereas Oregon has no sales tax but high income taxes. A similar situation exists in Utah and Virginia. See also T. Randolph Beard, Paula A. Gant, and Richard P. Table 22, Tax Foundation, Feb. The Tax Foundation works hard to provide insightful tax policy analysis.
Our work depends on support from members of the public like you. Would you consider contributing to our work? We work hard to make our analysis as useful as possible. Would you consider telling us more about how we can do better? The tax base is the total amount of income, property, assets, consumption, transactions, or other economic activity subject to taxation by a tax authority.
A narrow tax base is non-neutral and inefficient. A broad tax base reduces tax administration costs and allows more revenue to be raised at lower rates. A sales tax is levied on retail sales of goods and services and, ideally, should apply to all final consumption with few exemptions. Many governments exempt goods like groceries; base broadening , such as including groceries, could keep rates lower.
A sales tax should exempt business-to-business transactions which, when taxed, cause tax pyramiding. January 6, Janelle Cammenga. Download PDF. Was this page helpful to you?
Thank You! Let us know how we can better serve you! Give Us Feedback. Tags online sales tax south dakota v. About the Author. Follow Janelle Cammenga. Related Research. Notes: a City, county and municipal rates vary.