Causes Of Conflict In Africa
Mar 08, · CAUSES OF CONFLICT IN AFRICA. Conflict arising from the militarization of the society: abundance of weaponry and trained soldiers and untrained volunteers available to any would be warlord with resources and determination. 1. Poor economic performance: a more basic and long term cause of conflict has been the catastrophic economic performance of many African countries. Coupled with the debt funslovestory.com: Chrisantus Oden. Sep 21, · Types of conflict. 1. Inter-country borders. One of the leading causes of internal and inter-state conflicts is the unacceptable nature of inter-country borders. Most of 2. Military. 3. Political-international. 4. Political-domestic. 5. Poor economic performance.
These are excerpts from the interview:. A fourth partnership framework, on human rights, has been negotiated but not yet signed. We do common analyses and take common positions, and we have achieved progress.
With every partnership, you're not going to agree on every issue. But we have had more consensus than disagreements. That resulted in the establishment of a new transitional government this year.
Last year, we worked together on what are the causes of conflict in africa Central African Republic to negotiate a new peace agreement. The AU force is providing military support for the transition process.
We have been challenged by the Libya process where the AU would like to be more proactive in resolving the conflict. Even then, we have made significant progress there following a peace summit in Berlin in January Countries in conflict already have infrastructure and resource challenges: inadequate healthcare facilities and low number of medical personnel, and so on.
In how to connect pc to tv monitor with elections coming up, the pandemic is challenging because the virus is passed through human contact, which happens at campaign events.
We have about 15 or so more elections to go this year, and appropriate healthcare protocols will be needed to protect people. Yes, but it will depend on the policy choices member states make, as well as the resources available to them. A few countries are middle income countries—higher middle-income or lower middle-income. Those countries have the resilience and the resources to undertake prevention, response and recovery measures.
But the LDCs [Least Developed Countries], whose economies are much more fragile, will need a lot of preparedness to develop appropriate policy responses that don't require a huge outlay of resources. The international development community can help such countries build back better.
Is there a role for pan-African institutions such as the AU in building back better? As I mentioned, the AU has been more of a political organization than an economic organization. The idea was to accelerate efforts at ending conflicts through mediation. In some cases, as with South Sudan, progress has been made. In some cases, as with the Sahel, we haven't made the desired progress.
We also see that conflict is spreading to other countries outside of Mali—Niger and Burkina Faso being the most vulnerable lately. I don't think we can silence all the guns this year because of all the challenges, but it is a valid aspiration. There needs to be an acceleration of mediation efforts. It is not easy to mediate in the way in which we are having this conversation [via video link].
When you want to bring political actors and communities together, you organize face-to-face discussions that enable people to come to agreements, and then you support them to implement such agreements. COVID is challenging that kind of support and intervention. There is potential because the last two or three decades have witnessed considerable political progress and economic growth, and several conflicts have ended. But we need to look beyond simply ending conflicts to addressing the root causes of conflicts.
And the root causes of conflict lie in bad governance which creates inequalities and does not promote growth and development. Even countries that are relatively stable need conditions that help consolidate and enhance peace and stability—good governance, inclusiveness, strong institutions, the rule of law, etc. Is Africa moving in the right direction, considering there are more democracies today than, say, 20 how to use maxman iv capsules ago?
The fact that we have more democracies today than previously is a good sign. But regular elections in and of themselves do not mean democracy. Democracy is about respect for human rights, good governance, responsive institutions that people can interact with, including a framework for the protection of stability through law and order, so people can go about their daily lives and achieve their dreams and their aspirations.
In some instances, the pandemic has worsened the situation. As cases increased in some countries, the response has been to deport irregular migrants. And in the refugee camps, especially in areas in conflict or coming out of conflict, it's been difficult to prevent the spread of COVID The IOM [International Organisation for Migration] has urged countries to respect the rights of refugees and to provide necessary facilities that safeguard them from the disease.
The challenge for AfCFTA is not so much peace and security; it's concluding negotiations for the rules of origin. It is also ensuring the agreement is implemented in a way that benefits economies. Some countries may lose customs revenues, and so those countries need to see the benefits of free trade. Unfortunately, women are not included enough, and that needs to be addressed.
Creating lasting peace and security in countries or communities in conflict involves negotiating a peace agreement and a process of reconciliation—that involves men and women.
In situations where you are trying to rebuild communities, it requires the participation of the entirety of the community to make sure that the peace is consolidated. Do young people have how to play open the eyes of my heart lord role to play in conflict prevention, possibly resolution? You can't build peace without encouraging young people to be part of the peacebuilding process. They are the ones recruited as irregular fighters.
You have to think about disarmament, demobilization and reintegration into communities. You make sure they don't have the incentive to be part of organizations that terrorize communities.
You want them to be part of the productive economy. We are a very strong and resilient continent. We have been through difficult times before. We have more democracies now and we've also seen economic growth. We need to be engaged in rebuilding our countries and creating an inclusive platform for integration.
We are a continent of multiple ethnicities, and our diversity should be our strength. In the same way we condemn acts of discrimination in other parts of the world, we should not discriminate amongst ourselves on the basis of ethnicity. Skip to main content. Get the free mobile apps Get the latest news from us on our apps.
Welcome to the United Nations. Toggle navigation Language:. Africa Renewal. Beyond ending conflict in Africa, we must tackle its root causes Get monthly e-newsletter. Cover Story. Beyond ending conflict in Africa, we must tackle its root causes. From Africa Renewal:. June Kingsley Ighobor. How is the partnership between the United Nations and Africa Union going?
What are some of the challenges or opportunities in the UN-AU partnership? How is the Silencing the Guns campaign going?
What more work can be done to silence the guns in Africa? Do you envision an Africa without war? What are your views on the role of women in peace and security in Africa? What is your message to Africans in these trying times? African Union. Also in this issue. By Kingsley Ighobor. Sustainable Development Goals. By Franck Kuwonu. By Ahunna Eziakonwa. By Pavithra Rao. Culture and Education. What is black aids awareness day mixed martial arts fighters in the Ultimate Fighting Championship spotlight.
By Jaxson Cooper. By Zipporah Musau. By Africa Renewal. Economic empowerment. New report calls on Africa to build resilient economies through integration.
By Maria Helena Semedo. Human Rights. By Angela Lusigi and Achievement Dhlakama. Economic How to wrap a swaddling blanket. Speak up.
Stand with women and girls" WithHer. By Abdarahmane Wone. By UN News.
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It is paramount that violent conflicts in Africa be ameliorated not only due to deaths and suffering but also due to global security. There are a number of causes of violent conflict in Africa but the first and arguably the broadest is colonialism. While the most virulent of all violent conflicts in Africa have been between Africans themselves, the origin of these conflicts lie in colonialism. Causes of Conflicts in AfricaConflicts in Africa may be said to have been caused by a multiplicity of factors such as: arbitrary borders created by the colonial powers, heterogeneous ethnic composition of African states, inept political leadership, corruption, negative effect of external debt burden and poverty. Jun 25, · And the root causes of conflict lie in bad governance which creates inequalities and does not promote growth and development. It’s important .
Despite decades of conflict, death and tragedy, coverage of issues in Africa has often been ignored, oversimplified, or excessively focused on limited aspects. Deeper analysis, background and context has often been lacking, so despite what seems like constant images of starving children in famines, news of billions in aid to Africa from generous donor countries, the background context and analysis is often missing. Whether aid makes the situation worse, or why there is famine and hunger in Africa when African nations are exporting crops to other parts of the world are rarely asked by the mainstream.
In addition to the conflict deaths, there have been over 9 million refugees and internally displaced people. While refugee numbers in recent years have declined, the number of internally displaced has risen:. If this scale of destruction and fighting was in Europe, then people would be calling it World War III with the entire world rushing to report, provide aid, mediate and otherwise try to diffuse the situation.
Yet here, as mentioned in the media section of this web site, and noted by Virgil Hawkins , the western mainstream media does practically nothing to raise this awareness or, perhaps it is not deemed important enough to report extensively about. Hawkins did a year long study see above new world maps link on some major western media outlets in to see what percentage of their media focus fell where. In a separate article breaking down the conflict deaths since the end of the Cold War, Hawkins notes over 9 million of these deaths occurred in Africa, and adds:.
It quickly becomes obvious that conflicts that have dominated the agendas of actors in a position to respond policymakers, the media, the public and academia are often relatively small in scale compared to many of those that have consistently failed to attract attention.
More coverage about issues concerning Africa can be found on the Internet than the traditional mainstream media outlets, but even then it is not as easy to find the information. Side Note Since originally making this point in , additional web sites from African organizations have emerged providing a lot of information, about news, cultures, and so on about all aspects of Africa. Even the popular press in the West are providing more information on African news, although these are often very brief and without the much needed perspectives and backgrounds from political, historical, socioeconomic angles etc.
But subtracting from this coverage Iraq and Afghanistan, only 0. Wars without the involvement of the Western nations, do not seem newsworthy enough to appear on international TV news agendas, and the little coverage given only focuses on the brutality of the conflict and not on possible solutions.
The death toll from conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo DRC is literally one thousand times greater than that in Israel-Palestine, yet it is the latter that is the object of far greater media coverage … [and where] the intricacies and nuances of the conflict, political situation and peace process are almost obsessively analyzed and presented.
But even [when there is coverage of conflicts in] Africa, the death toll has little to do with the levels of coverage. Darfur made a rare appearance on the radar of Western concern in … at a time when the known death toll from conflict there was still 80 times smaller than that in the DRC.
Similarly, political violence in early in Zimbabwe resulting in one death and a number of arrests and beatings of political leaders became the object of relatively high levels of attention and indignation in the Western media. At almost exactly the same time, political protest in Guinea was put down by government forces that fired indiscriminately into crowds of protesters resulting in a total of deaths and numerous arrests. Also at the same time, street battles between government and opposition forces in the capital of the DRC resulted in between and deaths, and resulted in the exile of the opposition leader.
But why is it important whether or not media outlets in countries such as those in the West provide coverage of African and other conflicts that do not appear to involve them? There have recently been numerous civil wars and conflicts going in Africa, some of which are still going on, including. No less than 28 Sub-Saharan African states have been at war since , as pointed out by international development organization, ID When the missionaries came to Africa they had the Bible and we had the land.
They said, Let us pray. We closed our eyes. When we opened them we had the Bible and they had the land. Although, not the only reasons, some often overlooked root causes also include the following:. The artificial boundaries created by colonial rulers as they ruled and finally left Africa had the effect of bringing together many different ethnic people within a nation that did not reflect, nor have in such a short period of time the ability to accommodate or provide for, the cultural and ethnic diversity.
The freedom from imperial powers was, and is still, not a smooth transition. The natural struggle to rebuild is proving difficult. In the s European nations were bickering over themselves about the spoils of Africa. In order to prevent further conflict between them, they convened at the Berlin Conference of to lay down the rules on how they would partition up Africa between themselves. Between and World War I alone, the European scramble for Africa resulted in the adding of around one-fifth of the land area of the globe to its overseas colonial possessions.
Colonial administrations started to take hold. In some areas, Europeans were encouraged to settle, thus creating dominant minority societies. France even planned to incorporate Algeria into the French state, such was the dominance and confidence of colonial rulers at the time. In other cases, the classic divide and conquer techniques had to be used to get local people to help administer colonial administrations.
Some were only too willing to help for their own ends. In most areas colonial administrations did not have the manpower or resources to fully administer the territory and had to rely on local power structures to help them. Various factions and groups within the societies exploited this European requirement for their own purposes, attempting to gain a position of power within their own communities by cooperating with Europeans.
One aspect of this struggle included what Terrence Ranger has termed the invention of tradition. In order to legitimize their own claims to power in the eyes of both the colonial administrators, and their own people, people would essentially manufacture traditional claims to power, or ceremonies.
As a result many societies were thrown into disarray by the new order. Throughout Africa, Europe staked a claim. Many post war conflicts, such as that in Uganda, had a some root cause in this scramble for Africa as a documentary called Uganda Rising notes:. Colonialism, in the traditional sense, ended as European countries started fighting over themselves over the world the World Wars and in effect, weakened themselves in the process allowing the United States and Soviet Union to eventually gain in immense power.
They would spend another 50 years continuing that fight. Colonized people, the world over, saw their chance to break free as they realized that Europe was not invincible or as civilized as they claimed. Britain could no longer hold on to India, for example.
In Africa,. Some of the inspiration for this movement came from the First World War in which European countries had relied on colonial troops for their own defence.
Many in Africa realized their own strength with regard to the colonizer for the first time. At the same time, some of the mystique of the invincible European was shattered by the barbarities of the war.
However, in most areas European control remained relatively strong during this period. Some have commented that pointing to colonialism is not an excuse as many African countries have had decades to try and resolve this. The implication of the argument is that the effects of centuries of colonialism, in effect, are supposed to be overcome in just a few short years. Yet, as Richard Robbins, professor of anthropology suggests, if countries like Canada have been struggling with accommodating different groups, then in Africa the problem is more complex:.
We must remember that the European agreements that had carved up Africa into states paid little attention to cultural and ethnic boundaries and ethnic groups had little opportunity or need to form political alliances or accommodations under repressive colonial rule. Consider the extent to which he Second World War of just 6 years duration has pervaded the consciousness of our developed world for 2 generations and imagine how 4 centuries of enslavement might have seized the entire social and cultural ethos of an undeveloped continent.
Rebuilding from decades and centuries of this has been a tough struggle. To establish a type of nationwide government, [European] colonial administrators effectively set about inventing African traditions for Africa, that would make the process more acceptable to the indigenous population. The most far-reaching inventions of tradition in colonial Africa occurred when the administrators believed they were respecting age old African custom whereas a commentator notes What were called customary law, customary land-rights, customary political structure and so on were in fact all invented by colonial codification.
By creating an image of Africa steeped in unchanging tradition the colonizers condemned the continent to live in a reconstructed moment of its past. A vast continental theme park — Africa-land, that hindered development for decades. But perhaps the most pernicious of the traditions which the colonial period bequeathed to Africa was the notion of Tribalism. Just as every European belonged to a nation, every African must belong to a tribe, a cultural unit with a common language, a single social system and established customary law.
In Zambia the chief of a little known group once remarked, My people were not Soli until when the Bwana D. The concept of the Zulu as a discrete ethnic group did not emerge until These were the dangerous sands upon which the colonialists imposed a new political geography. However once in motion, the process was enthusiastically reinforced by the Africans themselves. Tribes became the object of passionate African imagination. Some chroniclers have endowed their tribes with a retrospective primordial essence.
Rather like Yeats did with the similarly disenfranchised Irish. The British ruled through these local hierarchies, a process which unconsciously promoted the most malleable, collaborative or corrupt local chiefs and where none existed, as we've seen, they simply created one, enabling ambitious individuals and groups to achieve positions of status, dominance, and wealth that might otherwise have been unattainable.
To counter this tribalism some African leaders proclaimed the single party state to be the only means to control the excessive, ethnically based competition for the global goods of modernity — education, health, and the eradication of poverty.
Competitive democracy they said would only lead to penury. Yet one-party rule unrestrained by the moral check of shared community had the same result.
It proved to be a mask for oppression, ethnocracy and kleptocracy. Of the African leaders overthrown between and two-thirds were murdered, jailed or slung into exile. Up until 59 African leaders were toppled or assassinated. Only three retired peacefully and not one was voted out of office.
No incumbent African leader ever lost an election until Colonialism had thus transformed an entire continent. Vast plantations and cash crop-based, or other extractive economies were set up throughout. Thus has colonialism had a major impact on the economics of the region today. Various commentators, mostly from the third world observer that colonialism in the traditional sense may have ended, but the end results are much the same.
I was in Washington last year. At the World Bank the first question they asked me was how did you fail? I responded that we took over a country with 85 per cent of its adult population illiterate. The British ruled us for 43 years. When they left, there were 2 trained engineers and 12 doctors. This is the country we inherited. When I stepped down there was per-cent literacy and nearly every child was in school.
We trained thousands of engineers and doctors and teachers. So I asked the World Bank people what went wrong. Because for the last ten years Tanzania has been signing on the dotted line and doing everything the IMF and the World Bank wanted.
Enrollment in school has plummeted to 63 per cent and conditions in health and other social services have deteriorated.