The process of crude oil refining
An octane rating, or octane number, is a standard measure of an engine or aviation gasoline capability against funslovestory.com higher the octane number, the more compression the fuel can withstand before funslovestory.com rating does not relate directly to the power output or the energy content of the fuel per unit mass or volume, but simply indicates gasoline's capability against compression. The alkanes from pentane (C 5 H 12) to octane (C 8 H 18) are refined into gasoline, the ones from nonane (C 9 H 20) to hexadecane (C 16 H 34) into diesel fuel, kerosene and jet fuel. Alkanes with more than 16 carbon atoms can be refined into fuel oil and lubricating oil.
Once crude oil is extracted from the ground, it must be transported and refined into petroleum products that have any value. Those products must then be transported to end-use consumers or retailers like gasoline stations or the company that delivers heating oil to your house, if you have an oil furnace.
The overall well-to-consumer supply chain for petroleum products is often described as being segmented into three components shown graphically in Figure 2. Some companies in the petroleum industry have activities that would fall into upstream, midstream and downstream segments.
ExxonMobil is one example of such a firm. Ajd have activities that fall primarily into only one segment. The KinderMorgan pipeline company is an example of a specialized petroleum firm, in this case belonging to the midstream segment. Many regions have local gas station brands that would specialize in the downstream segment of the industry.
One of the best-known regional examples is the WaWa chain of gas stations and convenience stores in eastern Pennsylvania, but large grocery stores and retailers like Costco crackef Wal-Mart are octans involved in downstream sales of petroleum products. Petroleum refineries are large-scale industrial complexes that produce saleable petroleum products from crude oil and pentaje other feedstocks like biomass.
The details of refinery operations differ from location to location, cracker virtually all refineries share two basic processes for separating crude oil into the various product components.
Actual refinery operations are very complicated, but the basic functions of the refinery can be broken down into three categories of chemical processes:. The link below will take you to a minute long video that provides more details on the various refining processes.
The most common method of refining crude is the process of fractional distillation. This involves heating crude oil to about degrees Celsius, to turn it into a mixture of gases. Anc are piped into a tall cylinder, known as a fractional tower. Inside the tower, the very long carbon chain liquids, such as bitumen and paraffin wax, are piped away to be broken down elsewhere.
The hydrocarbon gases rise up inside the tower, passing through a series of horizontal trays and baffles called bubble caps. The temperature at each tray is controlled so as to be at the exact temperature that a particular hydrocarbon will condense into a too.
The distillation process is based cdacked this fact. Different hydrocarbons condense out of the gas cdacked when the temperature drops below their specific boiling point.
The higher the gas rises in the tower, the lower the temperature becomes. The precise details are different at every refinery, and depend on the type of crude oil being distilled. But at around degrees, diesel condenses out of the gas. At around degrees, kerosene condenses out. Petrol, or gasoline, condenses out fracked around degrees, while petroleum gas is drawn off at the top. The distilled liquid from each level contains a mixture of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatic how to wash clothes with detergent with similar properties, and requires further refinement and processing to select specific molecules.
The quantities of the fractions initially produced in an oil refinery don't match up with what is needed by consumers. There is not much demand for the longer chain, high molecular weight hydrocarbons, but a large demand for those of lower molecular weight-- for pejtane, petrol. A process called cracking is used to produce more of the lower fracked weight hydrocarbons.
This process breaks up the longer chains into b ones. There are many different industrial versions of cracking, but all rely on heating. When pentanw, the particles move much more quickly, and their rapid movement causes carbon-carbon bonds to break. The major forms of cracking are thermal cracking, catalytic, or cat cracking, steam cracking, and pentame. Because they differ in reaction conditions, the products of each type of cranking will vary.
Most produce a mixture of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Thermal cracking is the simplest and oldest process. The mixture is heated to around to degrees Celsius, at a pressure of kilopascals That is, around seven times atmospheric pressure. This process produces alkenes, such as ethane and propane, and leaves a heavy residue.
The most effective process in creating lighter alkanes is called catalytic cracking. The long carbon bonds are broken by being heated to around trey songz whatever you want Celsius in an oxygen-free environment, in the cravked of zeolite.
This crystalline substance, crackex of aluminum, silicon, and oxygen, acts as a catalyst. A catalyst is a substance that speeds up a reaction or allows it to proceed at a lower temperature than would normally be required. During the process, the catalyst, usually in the form of a powder, is treated and reused over and over again.
Catalytic cracking is the major source of hydrocarbons, with 5 to 10 carbon atoms in the chain. The molecules most formed are the smaller alkanes used in petrol, such as propane, butane, pentane, pentanne, heptane, and octane, the components of liquid petroleum gas.
In hydrocracking, crude oil is heated at very high pressure, usually around 5, kiloPascals, in the presence of hydrogen, with a metallic catalyst such as platinum, nickel, or palladium. This process tends to produce saturated hydrocarbons, such as shorter carbon chain alkanes, because it adds a hydrogen atom to alkanes how much are airline tickets to australia aromatic hydrocarbons.
It is a major source of kerosene jet fuel, gasoline components, and LPG. In one method, thermal steam cracking, the hydrocarbon is diluted with steam and then briefly heated in a very hot furnace, around degrees Celsius, without oxygen.
The reaction is only allowed to take place very briefly. Light hydrocarbons break down to the lighter alkenes, including ethane, propane, and butane, octxne are anr for plastics manufacturing. Heavier hydrocarbons break down to some of these, but also give products rich in aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons suitable for inclusion in petrol or diesel. Higher cracking temperature favors the production of ethene and benzene.
In the coking unit, bitumen is heated and broken down tp petrol alkanes and diesel fuel, leaving behind coke, a fused combination of carbon and ash. Coke can be used as a smokeless fuel. Reforming involves the breaking of straight chain alkanes into branched alkanes. The branched chain alkanes in the 6 to 10 carbon atom range are preferred as car fuel. These alkanes vaporize easily in the engine's combustion chamber, without cam droplets and are less prone to premature ignition, which affects the engine's operation.
Smaller hydrocarbons can also be treated to form longer carbon chain molecules in the refinery. This is done through the process of catalytic reforming, When heat is applied in the presence of a platinum catalyst, short carbon chain hydrocarbons what is the herb thyme used for bind to form aromatics, used in making chemicals.
A byproduct of the reaction is hydrogen gas, wht can be used for hydrocracking. Hydrocarbons have an petane function in modern society, as fuel, as solvents, and as the building bw of plastics.
Crude oil is distilled into its basic components. The longer carbon chain hydrocarbons may be cracked to become more valuable, shorter chain hydrocarbons, octwne short chain molecules can bind to form useful longer chain molecules. The first process is known as distillation. In this process, crude oil is heated and fed into a distillation column.
A schematic of the distillation column is shown in Figure 2. Each fraction corresponds to a different type of petroleum product, depending on the temperature at which that fraction boils off the crude oil mixture. The second and third processes are known as cracking and reforming.
Figure 2. This process can produce some higher-value products from heavier fractions. Cracking is most often utilized to produce gasoline and jet fuel cotane heavy gas oils. Reforming is typically utilized on lower-value light fractions, again to produce more gasoline. The reforming process involves inducing chemical reactions under pressure to change ti composition of the hydrocarbon chain.
The production of final petroleum products differs from refinery to refinery, but in general, the oil refineries in the How to pack samsung led tv. Nearly half of every barrel of crude oil that goes into a typical U.
Diesel fuel, another transportation fuel, is generally the second-most-produced product from a refinery, representing about one-quarter of each barrel of oil. Skip to main content. The process of crude oil refining Print The process of crude oil refining Once crude oil is extracted from the ground, it must pentwne transported and refined into petroleum products that have any value.
Upstream activities involve exploring for crude oil deposits and the production of crude oil. Examples of firms that would belong in the upstream segment of the industry include companies that own rights to drill for octwne e. Midstream activities involve the distribution of crude oil to refiners; the refining of crude oil into saleable products; and acn distribution of products to wholesalers and retailers.
Examples of firms that would belong in the midstream segment of the industry include companies that transport oil by pipeline, truck or barge e. Downstream activities involve the retail sale of petroleum products. Gasoline stations are perhaps the most visible downstream companies, but companies that deliver heating oil or propane would also fall into this category. Upstream midstream and downstream. Click for transcript of Petroleum Refining Basics. Click for text description of Figure 2.
Catalytic cracking is the major source of hydrocarbons, with 5 to 10 carbon atoms in the chain. The molecules most formed are the smaller alkanes used in petrol, such as propane, butane, pentane, hexane, heptane, and octane, the components of liquid petroleum gas.
It is commonly refined into various types of fuels. Components of petroleum are separated using a technique called fractional distillation , i. It consists of naturally occurring hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and may contain miscellaneous organic compounds.
A fossil fuel , petroleum is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, mostly zooplankton and algae , are buried underneath sedimentary rock and subjected to both intense heat and pressure. Petroleum has mostly been recovered by oil drilling. Drilling is carried out after studies of structural geology, sedimentary basin analysis, and reservoir characterisation.
Recent improvements to technologies have also led to exploitation of other unconventional reserves such as oil sands and oil shale. Once extracted, oil is refined and separated, most easily by distillation , into numerous products for direct use or use in manufacturing, such as gasoline petrol , diesel and kerosene to asphalt and chemical reagents used to make plastics , pesticides and pharmaceuticals. Petroleum is used in manufacturing a wide variety of materials,  and it is estimated that the world consumes about million barrels each day.
Petroleum production can be extremely profitable and was important for economic development in the 20th century, with some countries, so called " oil states ", gaining significant economic and international power because of their control of oil production. Petroleum exploitation has significant negative environmental and social consequences.
Most significantly, extraction , refining and burning of petroleum fuels all release large quantities of greenhouse gases , so petroleum is one of the major contributors to climate change.
At the same time, parts of the petroleum industry actively suppressed science and policy that aimed to prevent the climate crisis. Other negative environmental effects include the environmental impacts of exploration and exploitation of petroleum reserves, such as oil spills , and air and water pollution at the sites of utilization.
All of these environmental impacts have direct health consequences for humans. Additionally, oil has also been a source of conflict leading to both state-led-wars and other kinds of conflicts for example, oil revenue funded the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.
Production of petroleum is expected to reach peak oil before as global economies reduce dependencies on petroleum as part of climate change mitigation and a transition towards renewable energy and electrification. Petroleum, in one form or another, has been used since ancient times, and is now important across society, including in economy, politics and technology.
The rise in importance was due to the invention of the internal combustion engine , the rise in commercial aviation , and the importance of petroleum to industrial organic chemistry, particularly the synthesis of plastics, fertilisers, solvents, adhesives and pesticides. More than years ago, according to Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus , asphalt was used in the construction of the walls and towers of Babylon ; there were oil pits near Ardericca near Babylon , and a pitch spring on Zacynthus.
Ancient Persian tablets indicate the medicinal and lighting uses of petroleum in the upper levels of their society. The use of petroleum in ancient China dates back to more than years ago. In I Ching , one of the earliest Chinese writings cites that oil in its raw state, without refining, was first discovered, extracted, and used in China in the first century BCE.
In addition, the Chinese were the first to record the use of petroleum as fuel as early as the fourth century BCE. In the 9th century, oil fields were exploited in the area around modern Baku , Azerbaijan. Through Islamic Spain , distillation became available in Western Europe by the 12th century.
Sophisticated oil pits, 15 to 20 feet deep, were dug by the Seneca People and other Iroqouis in Western Pennsylvania as early as The French General Louis-Joseph de Montcalm encountered Seneca using petroleum for ceremonial fires and as a healing lotion during a visit to Fort Duquesne in Early British explorers to Myanmar documented a flourishing oil extraction industry based in Yenangyaung that, in , had hundreds of hand-dug wells under production.
Pechelbronn Pitch fountain is said to be the first European site where petroleum has been explored and used. The still active Erdpechquelle, a spring where petroleum appears mixed with water has been used since , notably for medical purposes. Oil sands have been mined since the 18th century.
Chemist James Young noticed a natural petroleum seepage in the Riddings colliery at Alfreton , Derbyshire from which he distilled a light thin oil suitable for use as lamp oil, at the same time obtaining a more viscous oil suitable for lubricating machinery.
In , Young set up a small business refining the crude oil. Young eventually succeeded, by distilling cannel coal at a low heat, in creating a fluid resembling petroleum, which when treated in the same way as the seep oil gave similar products. Young found that by slow distillation he could obtain a number of useful liquids from it, one of which he named "paraffine oil" because at low temperatures it congealed into a substance resembling paraffin wax. The production of these oils and solid paraffin wax from coal formed the subject of his patent dated 17 October The demand for petroleum as a fuel for lighting in North America and around the world quickly grew.
Drake's well is probably singled out because it was drilled, not dug; because it used a steam engine; because there was a company associated with it; and because it touched off a major boom. Romania is the first country in the world to have had its annual crude oil output officially recorded in international statistics: tonnes for Williams's well became commercially viable a year before Drake's Pennsylvania operation and could be argued to be the first commercial oil well in North America.
Advances in drilling continued into when local driller Shaw reached a depth of 62 metres using the spring-pole drilling method. Access to oil was and still is a major factor in several military conflicts of the twentieth century, including World War II , during which oil facilities were a major strategic asset and were extensively bombed.
Today, about 90 percent of vehicular fuel needs are met by oil. Petroleum also makes up 40 percent of total energy consumption in the United States, but is responsible for only 1 percent of electricity generation. A large portion of the world's total oil exists as unconventional sources, such as bitumen in Athabasca oil sands and extra heavy oil in the Orinoco Belt. While significant volumes of oil are extracted from oil sands, particularly in Canada, logistical and technical hurdles remain, as oil extraction requires large amounts of heat and water, making its net energy content quite low relative to conventional crude oil.
Thus, Canada's oil sands are not expected to provide more than a few million barrels per day in the foreseeable future. Petroleum includes not only crude oil, but all liquid, gaseous and solid hydrocarbons.
Under surface pressure and temperature conditions , lighter hydrocarbons methane , ethane , propane and butane exist as gases, while pentane and heavier hydrocarbons are in the form of liquids or solids. However, in an underground oil reservoir the proportions of gas, liquid, and solid depend on subsurface conditions and on the phase diagram of the petroleum mixture.
An oil well produces predominantly crude oil, with some natural gas dissolved in it. Because the pressure is lower at the surface than underground, some of the gas will come out of solution and be recovered or burned as associated gas or solution gas. A gas well produces predominantly natural gas. However, because the underground temperature is higher than at the surface, the gas may contain heavier hydrocarbons such as pentane, hexane , and heptane in the gaseous state. At surface conditions these will condense out of the gas to form " natural gas condensate ", often shortened to condensate.
Condensate resembles gasoline in appearance and is similar in composition to some volatile light crude oils.
The proportion of light hydrocarbons in the petroleum mixture varies greatly among different oil fields , ranging from as much as 97 percent by weight in the lighter oils to as little as 50 percent in the heavier oils and bitumens.
The hydrocarbons in crude oil are mostly alkanes , cycloalkanes and various aromatic hydrocarbons , while the other organic compounds contain nitrogen , oxygen and sulfur , and trace amounts of metals such as iron, nickel, copper and vanadium. Many oil reservoirs contain live bacteria.
Four different types of hydrocarbon molecules appear in crude oil. The relative percentage of each varies from oil to oil, determining the properties of each oil. Crude oil varies greatly in appearance depending on its composition. It is usually black or dark brown although it may be yellowish, reddish, or even greenish. In the reservoir it is usually found in association with natural gas, which being lighter forms a "gas cap" over the petroleum, and saline water which, being heavier than most forms of crude oil, generally sinks beneath it.
Crude oil may also be found in a semi-solid form mixed with sand and water, as in the Athabasca oil sands in Canada, where it is usually referred to as crude bitumen. In Canada, bitumen is considered a sticky, black, tar-like form of crude oil which is so thick and heavy that it must be heated or diluted before it will flow. These oil sands resources are called unconventional oil to distinguish them from oil which can be extracted using traditional oil well methods. Between them, Canada and Venezuela contain an estimated 3.
Petroleum is used mostly, by volume, for refining into fuel oil and gasoline, both important " primary energy " sources. Because heavier crude oils have too much carbon and not enough hydrogen, these processes generally involve removing carbon from or adding hydrogen to the molecules, and using fluid catalytic cracking to convert the longer, more complex molecules in the oil to the shorter, simpler ones in the fuels. Due to its high energy density , easy transportability and relative abundance , oil has become the world's most important source of energy since the mids.
Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products, including pharmaceuticals , solvents , fertilizers , pesticides , and plastics; the 16 percent not used for energy production is converted into these other materials. Petroleum is found in porous rock formations in the upper strata of some areas of the Earth's crust. There is also petroleum in oil sands tar sands. Known oil reserves are typically estimated at around km 3 1.
Petroleum is a mixture of a very large number of different hydrocarbons ; the most commonly found molecules are alkanes paraffins , cycloalkanes naphthenes , aromatic hydrocarbons , or more complicated chemicals like asphaltenes. Each petroleum variety has a unique mix of molecules , which define its physical and chemical properties, like color and viscosity. They generally have from 5 to 40 carbon atoms per molecule, although trace amounts of shorter or longer molecules may be present in the mixture.
The alkanes from pentane C 5 H 12 to octane C 8 H 18 are refined into gasoline, the ones from nonane C 9 H 20 to hexadecane C 16 H 34 into diesel fuel , kerosene and jet fuel. Alkanes with more than 16 carbon atoms can be refined into fuel oil and lubricating oil. At the heavier end of the range, paraffin wax is an alkane with approximately 25 carbon atoms, while asphalt has 35 and up, although these are usually cracked by modern refineries into more valuable products. The shortest molecules, those with four or fewer carbon atoms, are in a gaseous state at room temperature.
They are the petroleum gases. Depending on demand and the cost of recovery, these gases are either flared off , sold as liquefied petroleum gas under pressure, or used to power the refinery's own burners. During the winter, butane C 4 H 10 , is blended into the gasoline pool at high rates, because its high vapour pressure assists with cold starts. Liquified under pressure slightly above atmospheric, it is best known for powering cigarette lighters, but it is also a main fuel source for many developing countries.
Propane can be liquified under modest pressure, and is consumed for just about every application relying on petroleum for energy, from cooking to heating to transportation. The cycloalkanes , also known as naphthenes , are saturated hydrocarbons which have one or more carbon rings to which hydrogen atoms are attached according to the formula C n H 2n.
Cycloalkanes have similar properties to alkanes but have higher boiling points. The aromatic hydrocarbons are unsaturated hydrocarbons which have one or more planar six-carbon rings called benzene rings , to which hydrogen atoms are attached with the formula C n H 2n They tend to burn with a sooty flame, and many have a sweet aroma.
Some are carcinogenic. These different molecules are separated by fractional distillation at an oil refinery to produce gasoline, jet fuel, kerosene, and other hydrocarbons.
For example, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane isooctane , widely used in gasoline , has a chemical formula of C 8 H 18 and it reacts with oxygen exothermically : . The number of various molecules in an oil sample can be determined by laboratory analysis. The molecules are typically extracted in a solvent , then separated in a gas chromatograph , and finally determined with a suitable detector , such as a flame ionization detector or a mass spectrometer.
This Unresolved Complex Mixture UCM of hydrocarbons is particularly apparent when analysing weathered oils and extracts from tissues of organisms exposed to oil.
Some of the component of oil will mix with water: the water associated fraction of the oil.